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Tosa school

Tosa school
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Bamboo in the Four Seasons, Muromachi period (1392–1573) Attributed to Tosa Mitsunobu (1434–1535)

Pair of six-panel folding screens; color, ink, and gold on paper; 174.3 × 381.6 cm

The Tosa school of Japanese painting was founded in the 15th century, and was devoted to the Yamato-e, which are paintings specializing in subject matter and techniques derived from ancient Japanese art, as opposed to schools influenced by Chinese art.

The origins of this school of painting can be traced to Tosa Yukihiro (土佐 行弘), who first used the professional name of Tosa in the early fifteenth century. Later, the school was formally founded by Mitsunobu (1434?–?1525), and he served as official painter at the imperial court, specializing in courtly subjects painted in the yamato-e (やまと絵) style.

During this time, members of the Tosa school almost continuously held the position of head of the Imperial painting bureau (絵所預 edokoroazukari). Until the 17th century, the Tosa school painted for the court and aristocratic patrons, which favored such painting subjects as scenes from the classic Tale of Genji (源氏絵), but in later years, the school's range expanded to include bird-and-flower painting and other Chinese-inspired themes and styles. In general, the Tosa style is characterized by rather flat, decorative compositions, fine linework, great attention to detail, and brilliant color.

[edit] History
Ilustration of the Genji Monogatari

ch.42 – 匂宮 Niō no Miya ("The Perfumed Prince")

Credited to Tosa Mitsuoki (1617–1691).

The earliest documentary evidence for an artist using the name Tosa are two early 15th century references to a man named Fujiwara Yukihiro (藤原 行広) (fl. 1406 – 1434) who was also known as Tosa Shōgen (土佐 将監), a title derived from his position as governor of Tosa province. Yukihiro's activity as a painter is known primarily from an inscription on illustrated handscrolls of the Stories of the Origin of Yūzū Nembutsu (融通念仏縁起); 1414, Seiryōji (清涼寺), Kyoto.

Yukihiro's father, Fujiwara Yukimitsu (藤原 行光) (fl. 1352 – 1389) was appointed head of the Imperial painting bureau in 1352, and Yukihiro appears also to have held that post. However, the line of succession from Yukimitsu (considered by some to be the founder of the school) to Tosa Mitsunobu (土佐 光信) (1434 – 1525), who brought the school to a position of prominence in the late 15th century, is still unclear.

Many fine works remain from Mitsunobu's hand. Although he painted both Buddhist paintings and portraits in addition to the standard repertoire of courtly themes, he is best known for his illustrated handscrolls, emaki (絵巻), such as The Legends of Kiyomizudera (清水寺縁起). During Mitsunobu's lifetime, the Tosa school may have had some influence on the early development of the Kanō school (狩野派) of painting, in particular, on the use of brilliant colors and gold in combination with the Chinese inspired brushwork, and for various themes for which the Kanō school is known.

Mitsunobu was succeeded by his son, Mitsumochi (光茂) (1496 – ca.1559), under whom the fortunes of the school began to decline. When Mitsumoto (光元) (fl.1530 – 1569), the next head of the painting bureau, was killed in battle in 1569, his post was given to a second son or perhaps a student of Mitsumochi, Tosa Mitsuyoshi (土佐 光吉) (1539 – 1613). Mitsuyoshi eventually left the capital and his post and settled in the city of Sakai (堺), a port city near Osaka, where he sold paintings to the local townspeople. Mitsumochi also moved away from the traditional Tosa themes to specialize in bird-and-flower paintings. During this period, the stewardship of the imperial painting bureau passed from the Tosa school into the hands of Kanō school (狩野派) painters.

Mitsuyoshi's son, Mitsunori (光則) (1583 – 1638) continued to live and work in Sakai, painting for townsmen, until 1634, when he moved to the capital with his eldest son, Mitsuoki (光起) (1617 – 1691) and began painting ceremonial fans for the court. Twenty years later, in 1654, Mitsuoki was appointed head of the imperial painting bureau, thus restoring the fortunes of the Tosa family. Mitsuoki also rejuvenated the traditional Tosa style by introducing elements from Chinese painting. He is particularly noted for his elegant paintings of quail, as for example, the Chrysanthemum and Quail screens which he painted with the help of his son Mitsunari (光成) (1646 – 1710).

Mitsuoki's successors headed the Imperial painting bureau until the end of the Edo period, but their reliance on imitating the style of Mitsuoki, rather than developing new techniques or themes, led to the production of works that were increasingly static and conventional.

[edit] Tosa artists of note

* Tosa Yukihiro
* Tosa Mitsunobu
* Tosa Mitsuoki
* Tosa Mitsumochi
* Tosa Mitsumoto
* Tosa Mitsuyoshi
* Tosa Mitsunori
* Iwasa Matabei

[edit] References

* Burke, Richard. Murasaki Shikibu: Her Diary and Poetic Memoirs. Princeton University Press, 1982.
* Murase, Miyeko. Iconography of The Tale of Genji. Genji Monogatari Ekotoba. New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1983.
* The Tale of Genji: Legends and Paintings. Introduction by Miyeko Murase. New York: George Braziller, Inc., 2001 ISBN 0-7141-1496-0

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tosa_school"
Categories: 15th century establishments | Schools of Japanese art

土佐派
出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
移動: ナビゲーション, 検索

土佐派(とさは)
目次
[非表示]

* 1 流派解説
* 2 流派の由来
* 3 特筆すべき分系統
* 4 派生流派

[編集] 流派解説

* 巨勢派の巨勢公望の門人春日基光を流祖とし、数々の名手を世に送り出した流派。
* 本画派は、純日本的ないわゆる大和絵の伝法を樹立し、平安時代よりおよそ一千年の長きにわたって朝廷の絵所を世襲し、伝統と権勢を誇った流派である。

[編集] 流派の由来

* 源氏物語絵巻の筆者として名高い春日隆能の孫、春日経隆が、奈良を去って、京都に移り朝廷に仕えて、土佐権守に任じられたことに由来する。
* 春日経隆が、奈良を去るまでは、春日派と呼ばれることもあるが、経隆の後は、みな土佐を氏とした。

[編集] 特筆すべき分系統

* 隆信系 ※一名、法性寺系。藤原隆信を祖とする。著名な名手に、鳥羽僧正がいる。

など

[編集] 派生流派

* 住吉派

など

【春日派・土佐派歴代】

* 春日基光 当流初代
* 春日隆能 当流二代
* 土佐隆親 当流三代※春日隆親から土佐を名乗るようになる。
* 土佐光長 当流四代
* 土佐経隆
* 土佐長隆
* 土佐吉光
* 土佐行光 土佐派初代。
* 土佐光信 当流十三代※当流中興の祖とされる。
* 土佐光茂
* 土佐光起 当流十八代※当流中興の祖とされる。

【土佐派歴代】

* 土佐行光 土佐派?代。延文六年(1361)宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐光重 土佐派?代。行光の長子。明徳元年(1390)宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐光国 土佐派?代。宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐行秀 土佐派8世。行光の次子。応永二十年(1413)宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐広周 土佐派9世。行秀の次子。永享十一年(1439)宮中絵所預となる。後に室町幕府に渡り絵師職として活躍する。彼の子で後継者の行定は延徳二年(1491)を最後にその消息は途絶え、広周の幕府関係の料所は11世光信に継承された。
* 土佐光弘 土佐派10世。行秀の長子。嘉吉三年(1443)宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐光信 土佐派11世。広周の兄光弘の次子。文明元年(1469)宮中絵所預となる。延徳三年(1491)ごろに幕府絵師職を継承し土佐派の家系を統一、土佐派を確立させた。
* 土佐光茂 土佐派12世。光信の子。
* 土佐光元 土佐派13世。光茂の長子。
* 土佐光吉 土佐派14世。光茂の次子。
* 土佐光則 土佐派15世。光吉の子。
* 土佐光起 土佐派16世。土佐派中興の祖。
* 土佐光成 土佐派17世。光起の長子。
* 土佐光祐 土佐派18世。
* 土佐光芳 土佐派19世。光祐の子。
* 土佐光淳 土佐派20世。
* 土佐光時 土佐派21世。光淳の子。
* 土佐光禄 土佐派22世。
* 土佐光文 土佐派23世。光芳の子光貞の光孚の次男。宗家を継ぐ。
* 土佐光章 土佐派24世。光文の子。28歳で早世。
* 土佐光一 土佐派25世。

【別家】

* 土佐光貞 別家初代。本家十九代土佐光芳の次子。別家を創設する。
* 土佐光孚 別家二代。光貞の子。

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