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語彙

scrape (skrEp) v. scraped scrap•ing scrapes v. tr. 1. To remove (an outer layer, for example) from a surface by forceful strokes of an edged or rough instrument: scraped the wallpaper off before painting the wall. 2. To abrade or smooth by rubbing with a sharp or rough instrument. 3. To rub (a surface) with considerable pressure, as with an edged instrument or a hard object. 4. To draw (a hard or abrasive object) forcefully over a surface: scraped my fingernails down the blackboard. 5. To injure the surface of by rubbing against something rough or sharp: scraped my knee on the sidewalk. 6. To amass or produce with difficulty: scrape together some cash. v. intr. 1. To come into sliding, abrasive contact. 2. To rub or move with a harsh grating noise. 3. To give forth a harsh grating noise. 4. To practice petty economies; scrimp. 5. To succeed or manage with difficulty: scraped through by a narrow margin. n. 1. a. The act of scraping. b. The sound of scraping. 2. An abrasion on the skin. 3. a. An embarrassing predicament. b. A fight; a scuffle.
[ Middle English scrapen from Old Norse skrapa; See sker- 1 in Indo-European Roots.]

scratch (skr^ch) v. scratched scratch•ing scratch•es v. tr. 1. To make a thin, shallow cut or mark on (a surface) with a sharp instrument. 2. To use the nails or claws to dig or scrape at. 3. To rub or scrape (the skin) to relieve itching. 4. To scrape or strike on an abrasive surface. 5. To write or draw (something) by scraping a surface: scratched their initials on a rock. 6. To write or draw hurriedly: scratched off a thank-you note. 7. a. To strike out or cancel (a word, for example) by or as if by drawing lines through. b. Slang To cancel (a project or a program, for example). 8. Sports Games To withdraw (an entry) from a contest. v. intr. 1. To use the nails or claws to dig, scrape, or wound. 2. To rub or scrape the skin to relieve itching. 3. To make a harsh, scraping sound. 4. To gather funds or produce a living with difficulty. 5. a. Sports Games To withdraw from a contest. b. Games To make a shot in billiards that results in a penalty, as when the cue ball falls into a pocket or jumps the cushion. n. 1. a. A mark resembling a line that is produced by scratching. b. A slight wound. 2. A hasty scribble. 3. A sound made by scratching. 4. a. Sports The starting line for a race. b. Sports Games A contestant who has been withdrawn from a competition. 5. Games a. The act of scratching in billiards. b. A fluke or chance shot in billiards. 6. Poultry feed. 7. Slang Money. adj. 1. Done haphazardly or by chance. 2. Assembled hastily or at random. 3. Sports Having no golf handicap.
Idioms:
from scratch 1. From the very beginning.
up to scratch Informal 1. Meeting the requirements. 2. In fit condition.
[ Middle English scracchen probably blend of scratten to scratch cracchen to scratch (possibly from Middle Dutch cratsen)]
scratch2er n.

scrab•ble (skr^b2úl) v. scrab•bled scrab•bling scrab•bles v. intr. 1. To scrape or grope about frenetically with the hands. 2. To struggle by or as if by scraping or groping. 3. To climb with scrambling, disorderly haste; clamber. 4. To make hasty, disordered markings; scribble. v. tr. 1. To make or obtain by scraping together hastily. 2. To scribble on or over. n. 1. The act or an instance of scrabbling. 2. A scribble; a doodle.
[ Dutch schrabbelen from Middle Dutch, frequentative of schrabben to scrape; See sker- 1 in Indo-European Roots.]

scrouge (skru:dZ, skradZ), v. colloq. or vulgar. Now chiefly U.S. Also 89 skrowdge, 9 scroodge, scrooge, scroudge, scrowge, skrouge.
[App. an onomatopic alteration of scruze.]
1. a. trans. To incommode by pressing against (a person); to encroach on (a persons) space in sitting or standing; to crowd. Also, to push or squeeze (a thing). Also fig.
1755 Johnson s.v. Scruze, This word..is still preserved, at least in its corruption, to scrouge, in the London jargon.
1756 W. Toldervy Hist. 2 Orphans III. 198, I assure you, that I am not used to be skrowdged by any man, not even my husband; therefore, pray sit farther from me.
1811 Ora & Juliet III. 131, I hope, Miss, I dont scrouge you?
1830 Constellation (N.Y.) 11 Sept. 2/5 The room was so completely crowded, that one could not have scrouged the little end of nothing, sharpened, between them.
1840 Dickens Old C. Shop xxxix, Kit had hit a man on the head with a handkerchief of apples for scrowdging his parent with unnecessary violence.
1868 F. J. Furnivall Babees Book p. xxxvi, By Harrisons time, a.d. 1577, rich mens sons had not only pressed into the Universities, but were scrooging poor mens sons out of the endowments meant only for the poor.
1888 E. Eggleston Graysons xxxiii. 348 You know what I ama good, stiddy-going, hard-working farmer, shore to get my sheer of whats to be had in the world without scrouging anybody else.
1896 Westm. Gaz. 24 July 7/2 A barrister applied at Westminster Police-court to-day for a summons against a solicitors clerk, alleged to have scrooged applicant when..he tried to obtain a seat at the Drummond Castle inquiry the other day.
1944 L. E. Smith Strange Fruit xxix. 362 Therell be lynchings as long as white folks and black folks scrouge each othereverybody scrambling for the same penny.
b. intr. Also fig.
1798 Aurora (Philadelphia) 13 Dec. 2/1 Upstairs I scrouged to the front.
1821 Egan Life in London viii. (1870) 194 Whos that that scroudges?you shant shove my wife.
1873 Punch 14 June 247/1 He, like the rest, scrooged and elbowed and leaned forward to see.
1908 K. Grahame Wind in Willows i. 2 So he scraped and scratched and scrabbled and scrooged, and then he scrooged again and scrabbled and scratched and scraped, working busily with his little paws.
1949 H. Hornsby Lonesome Valley xxviii. 377 He was in the top of a tree that scrouged against the sky, and they were cutting the tree down and he was falling with the tree.
c. To draw oneself into a compact shape. Cf. scrooch v. 1.
1905 Dialect Notes III. 64 There I was, all scrooged up in a corner.
1930 H. Stone in Murdoch & Drake-Brockman Austral. Short Stories (1951) 118 Derned if this bent an errand... Dont see how I be a-goin to scrooge through, tall, tall.
1937 S. V. Bent in Atlantic Monthly Dec. 685/2 So he sort of scrooged back in a corner and waited his chance.
1948 La Meri Spanish Dancing x. 144 Since there was seldom a sidewalk, one scrooged against their chalky walls to allow the old victoria carriages to pass.
1979 G. Swarthout Skeletons 230, I scrooged down in my chair, laid my head back, stretched out my legs.
d. trans. To draw tight; to squeeze or screw up (the eyes, etc.). Cf. scrooch v. 2.
1909 R. A. Wason Happy Hawkins 162 The old man looked at me with his little shiny eyes all scrouged up.
2. U.S. (See quot.)
1851 B. H. Hall College Words, Scrouge,..said of an instructor who imposes difficult tasks on his pupils.
Hence
"scrouging vbl. n.
1843 B. R. Hall New Purchase II. 59 (Bartlett 1860) After hard scrouging each way some hundred yards, we came together and held a council.
1894 Hall Caine Manxman iv. xvi. 263 Such pushing and scrooging, you never seen the like.


glint (glイnt) n. 1. A momentary flash of light; a sparkle. 2. A faint or fleeting indication; a trace. v. glint•ed glint•ing glints v. intr. 1. To gleam or flash briefly. See note at flash. v. tr. 1. To cause to gleam or flash.
[ Middle English glent of Scandinavian origin; See ghel- 2 in Indo-European Roots.]

gleam (glTm) n. 1. A brief beam or flash of light: saw gleams of daylight through the cracks. 2. A steady but subdued shining; a glow: the gleam of burnished gold. 3. A brief or dim indication; a trace: a gleam of intelligence. v. gleamed gleam•ing gleams v. intr. 1. To emit a gleam; flash or glow: “It shone with gold and gleamed with ivory” Edith Hamilton See note at flash. 2. To be manifested or indicated briefly or faintly. v. tr. 1. To cause to emit a flash of light.
[ Middle English glem from Old English glLm; See ghel- 2 in Indo-European Roots.]


spar•kle (spär2kúl) v. spar•kled spar•kling spar•kles v. intr. 1. To give off sparks. 2. To give off or reflect flashes of light; glitter. See note at flash. 3. To be brilliant in performance. 4. a. To shine with animation: He has eyes that sparkle. b. To flash with wit: Her conversation sparkled throughout the evening. 5. To release gas bubbles; effervesce: Champagne sparkles. v. tr. 1. To cause to flash and glitter: Sunlight was sparkling the waves. n. 1. A small spark or gleaming particle. 2. A glittering quality. 3. Brilliant animation; vivacity. 4. Emission of gas bubbles; effervescence.
[ Middle English sparklen frequentative of sparken to spark; See spark 1 ]
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