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次の児童文学の古典・名作のThe Wind in the Willows(『たのしい川べ』)を平行して読みます。

次の児童文学の古典・名作のThe Wind in the Willows(『たのしい川べ』)を平行して読みます。
 プリントを渡します。

* The Wind in the Willows , available from Internet Archive , illustrated by Paul Bransom (1913)
http://www.archive.org/details/windinwillows00grah
* The Wind in the Willows , available at Project Gutenberg .
http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext95/wwill11.txt
* Librivox audio recordings can be found here , here and here
http://librivox.org/the-wind-in-the-willows-by-kenneth-grahame/



ケネス・グレアム
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ケネス・グレアム(Kenneth Grahame、1859年 3月8日 - 1932年 7月6日 )はイギリス ・スコットランド の小説家 。ケネス・グレーアムとも表記される。なお、ケネス・グラハムという表記を見かけることもあるが、これは誤転写である。

スコットランドのエディンバラ 生まれ。児童文学 の名作として知られる『たのしい川べ 』(The Wind in the Willows、1908年 )の作者として有名。この物語はもともと、彼が息子アラステアのために執筆し、そのことで物語の主人公 である「ヒキガエル屋敷のヒキガエル 」のわがままぶりを親子で分かち合ったのである。
生涯

グレアムは幼い頃に孤児となり、イングランド に住む祖母と共に暮らした。オックスフォード のセントエドワーズ校において彼は傑出した生徒であり、オックスフォード大学 への入学を希望したが、学費の問題で許してもらえなかった。代わりに彼はイングランド銀行 へ働きに出され、以後、1907年 に体調を崩して退職するまでそこで働き続けた。

彼の結婚は不幸せなものであった。彼の唯一の子供であった息子アラステアは生まれた時から片目が見えず、その短い生涯の間ずっと健康の問題で苦しみ続けた。アラステアはついには自殺 してしまうが、父グレアムの気持ちとは無関係に、その死因は事故死と記録された。

ケネス・グレアムは1932年 、イングランドのバークシャー のパングボーン (Pangbourne )で没し、オックスフォードのホーリーウェル共同墓地に埋葬された。現在、彼の墓のそばにはアメリカ のSF作家 ジェイムズ・ブリッシュ の墓がある。

[編集 ] 著書

* Pagan Papers (1893年 )
* 『黄金時代』 (The Golden Age、1895年 )
* Dream Days (1898年 )
* 『おひとよしのりゅう』 (The Reluctant Dragon、1898年)
* 『たのしい川べ 』 (The Wind in the Willows、1908年 )

[編集 ] 関連項目

* イギリス文学
* 児童文学
* A・A・ミルン - 「たのしい川べ」を元にした戯曲 を製作。
* 楽しいウイロータウン - 「たのしい川べ」を元にした日本 のアニメ 作品。
* ケロヨン - 「たのしい川べ」を元にした日本の着ぐるみ劇「カエルのぼうけん」の主人公。

[編集 ] 外部リンク

* プロジェクト・グーテンベルク における Kenneth Grahameの作品
* Kenneth Grahame : 「たのしい川べ」に対する評判(英文)

"http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%B1%E3%83%8D%E3%82%B9%E3%83%BB%E3%82%B0%E3%83%AC%E3%82%A2%E3%83%A0 " より作成
カテゴリ : イギリスの小説家 | イギリスの児童文学作家 | 1859年生 | 1932年没

Kenneth Grahame
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Kenneth Grahame

Born March 8 , 1859 (1859-03-08)
Edinburgh , Scotland
Died July 6 , 1932 (aged 73)
Pangbourne , Berkshire , England
Occupation Novelist
Genres Fiction
Notable work(s) The Wind in the Willows

Kenneth Grahame (March 8 , 1859 – July 6 , 1932 ) was a British writer , most famous for The Wind in the Willows (1908), one of the classics of children's literature . He also wrote The Reluctant Dragon , which was much later adapted into a Disney movie.




たのしい川べ
出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
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『たのしい川べ』(原題:The Wind in the Willows)は、1908年 にイギリス の作家ケネス・グレアム が著した児童文学 である。日本語訳では1963年 、石井桃子 により翻訳された『たのしい川べ―ヒキガエルの冒険―』が著名。

[編集 ] 概要

物語は個性の強い4匹の動物(モグラ 、ミズハタネズミ 、ヒキガエル 、アナグマ )が登場し、緩急の付けられたミステリー、冒険、道徳、友情の入り交じったエピソードが続く。グレアムは当時銀行勤務を嫌い退職して、郊外に移転した頃に息子のために著作したものであり、「ただボートに乗ってぶらぶらする(messing about in boats)」という物語にも出てくる一節の通り、テムズ川 近くで過ごしていた。

この物語は児童文学として書かれたものの、当初の読者層は主に大人を対象としたビクトリア文学 に類するものとされた。

物語はイギリス階級社会の風刺とされ、登場する4匹の動物は当時の階級を代表する性格を擁していた。川に住むものは上流階級であり、森に住む者は下流階級であると考えられている。そして、登場する動物の生態に倣い、ヒキガエルのトードは上流階級、ミズハタネズミとアナグマは中流階級(ミズハタネズミは少し上流に近い)、そしてモグラは下流階級というように見なされる。

[編集 ] 主に登場する4匹の動物

* モール(Mole):おっとりとした家で過ごすことが好きなモグラで、最も最初に登場する。川岸のせわしい生活に威圧されるものの、その生活にも次第になれてくる。
* ラッティー(Ratty):のんびりしたつきあいの良いミズハタネズミ。川が好きでモールをかばうようになる。
* トード(Mr. Toad):個性の強いわがままでうぬぼれ屋のヒキガエル。
* バジャー(Badger):社会を単に憎む粗野だが親切で孤独なアナグマ。常識をもった賢者、よいリーダーおよび紳士として振る舞うことが多い。

[編集 ] 関連

* 楽しいウイロータウン :『たのしい川べ』を原作としたテレビアニメ(1993年 、テレビ東京 系)
* ケロヨン :1966 ~1970年 に日本テレビ 系『木馬座アワー 』で放映された『カエルのぼうけん 』(『たのしい川べ』を基にした)で登場するカエル。
* ヒキガエル館のヒキガエル :A・A・ミルン により戯曲化された作品。

"http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%81%9F%E3%81%AE%E3%81%97%E3%81%84%E5%B7%9D%E3%81%B9 " より作成
カテゴリ : イギリスの小説 | イギリスの児童文学 | 童話
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%81%9F%E3%81%AE%E3%81%97%E3%81%84%E5%B7%9D%E3%81%B9

The Wind in the Willows
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see The Wind in the Willows (disambiguation) .
The Wind in the Willows

Cover of the first edition
Author Kenneth Grahame
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre(s) Children's novel
Publisher Methuen
Publication date 1908
Media type Print (Hardcover )
Pages 302 pp
ISBN NA

The Wind in the Willows is a classic of children's literature by Kenneth Grahame , first pubished in 1908 . Alternately slow moving and fast paced, it focuses on four anthropomorphised animal characters in a pastoral version of England . The novel is notable for its mixture of mysticism, adventure, morality, and camaraderie.

The Wind in the Willows was saved from obscurity by the then-famous playwright, A. A. Milne , who loved it and adapted a part of it for stage as Toad of Toad Hall . The book made Grahame's fortune, enabling him to retire from his bank job, which he hated, though it was respectable and well-paid. He moved to the country, where he spent his time by the River Thames doing much as the animal characters in his book do; namely, as one of the most famous phrases from the book says, "simply messing about in boats".
Plot summary

At the start of the book, it is spring, the weather is fine, and good-natured Mole goes outside to take the air. He ends up at the river, which he has never seen before. Here he meets Ratty (a water vole), who spends all his days in and around the river. Rat takes Mole for a ride in his rowing boat. They get along well and the two of them spend many more days on the river, with Rat teaching Mole the ways of the river.

Some time later, one summer day, Rat and Mole find themselves near Toad Hall and pay a visit to Toad. Toad is rich, jovial and friendly, but conceited, and tends to become obsessed about things, only to dismiss them later. Having given up boating, Toad's current craze is his horse-drawn caravan. In fact, he is about to go on a trip, and persuades Rat and Mole to join him. A few days later, a passing motor car scares their horse, causing the caravan to crash. This marks the end of Toad's craze for caravan travel, to be replaced with an obsession for motor cars.

Mole wants to meet Badger, who lives in the Wild Wood, but Rat knows that Badger does not appreciate visits. On a winter's day, Mole goes to the Wild Wood, to explore and hoping to meet Badger. Mole gets lost in the woods, succumbs to fright and panic and hides among the roots of a sheltering tree. Rat goes looking for Mole, and finds him, but it starts to snow and even Rat no longer knows the way home. By chance they arrive at Badger's home.

Badger welcomes Rat and Mole to his large and very cozy home, and gives them food and dry clothes. Badger learns from Rat and Mole that Toad has crashed six cars and has been hospitalized three times, and has had to spend a fortune on fines. They decide they should do something to protect Toad from himself, since they are, after all, his friends.

Some months later, Badger visits Mole and Rat to do something about Toad's self-destructive obsession. The three of them go to visit Toad, and Badger tries talking him out of his behaviour, to no avail. They decide to put Toad under house arrest, with themselves as the guards, until Toad changes his mind. Feigning illness, Toad manages to escape, and steals a car. He is caught and sent to prison on a twenty year sentence.

Rat visits his old friend Otter and finds out that Otter's son is missing. Rat and Mole set out to find Otter's son. They receive help from the god Pan who leads them to the location of the missing child. Pan removes their memories of this meeting "lest the awful remembrance should remain and grow, and overshadow mirth and pleasure".

In prison, Toad gains the sympathy of the jailor's daughter, who helps him to escape. This involves disguising Toad as a washerwoman. Having escaped, Toad is without any possessions and pursued by the police, but he shakes off his pursuers with the help of the driver of a steam train.

Still disguised as a washerwoman, Toad comes across a horse-drawn boat . After lying about being a capable washerwoman to the owner of the boat, who offers him a lift in exchange for his laundry services, he gets into a fight with her, steals her horse and sells it to a traveller. He stops a passing car, which happens to be one he stole earlier. However, the owners don't recognize him in disguise, and give him a lift. Toad asks if he can drive, which of course quickly leads to an accident. He flees and by chance arrives at Rat's house.

Toad hears from Rat that Toad Hall has been taken over by weasels, stoats and ferrets from the Wild Wood, despite attempts to protect and recover it by Mole and Badger. Although upset at the loss of his house, Toad realizes what good friends he has, and how badly he has behaved. Badger, Rat, Mole and Toad enter Toad Hall via a secret entrance and drive away the intruders.

Toad makes up for his earlier wrongdoings by seeking out those he wronged and compensating them. The four friends live out their lives happily ever after.

[edit ] Main characters

* Mole – A mild mannered, home-loving animal, and the first character to be introduced. Originally overawed by the hustle and bustle of riverside life, he eventually adapts.

* Ratty – A relaxed and friendly European Water Vole , he loves the river and takes Mole under his wing.

* Mr. Toad – The wealthiest character and owner of Toad Hall. Although good-natured, Toad is impulsive, self-satisfied and conceited, eventually imprisoned for theft, dangerous driving and impertinence to the rural police. He is prone to obsessions and crazes, such as punting, houseboating, and horse-drawn caravans, each of which in turn he becomes bored with and drops. Several chapters of the book chronicle his escape, disguised as a washer-woman.

* Mr. Badger – A gruff but kindly and solitary figure who 'simply hates society'. He can be seen as a wise hermit, a good leader and gentleman, embodying common sense. He is also brave and helps clear the Wild Wooders from Toad Hall.

* Otter and Portly – A friend of Ratty and his son
* The Gaoler's Daughter – The only major human character; helps Toad escape from prison
* The Chief Weasel – He and a band of weasels, stoats, and ferrets plot to take over Toad Hall
* Pan – A god who makes a single and anomalous appearance in Chapter 7, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn
* The Wayfarer – A vagabond seafaring rat, who also makes a single appearance
* Inhabitants of the Wild Wood – Weasels, stoats and foxes and so on, who are described by Ratty as "all right in a way ... but ... well, you can't really trust them"; and squirrels , and rabbits , who are generally good but described as occasionally dim-witted

[edit ] Illustrated and comic editions

The book was originally published without illustrations, but many illustrated versions have later been published.

* The most popular are probably E. H. Shepard's , originally published in 1931, which are believed to be authorized, as Grahame was pleased with the initial sketches, though he did not live to see the completed work.[1]

* The Folio Society edition published in 2006 features 85 illustrations, 35 in colour, by Charles van Sandwyk .

* Michel Plessix created a Wind in the Willows comic book series, which helped to introduce the stories to France . They have been published into English by Cinebook Ltd .

[edit ] Adaptations

[edit ] Stage

* Toad of Toad Hall by A. A. Milne , produced in 1929
* Wind in the Willows, a 1985 Tony-nominated Broadway musical starring Nathan Lane
* The Wind in the Willows by Alan Bennett (who also appeared as Mole) in 1991
* Mr. Toad's Mad Adventures by Vera Morris
* Wind in the Willows (UK National Tour) by Ian Billings
* In 2000, American Conservatory Theatre in San Francisco commissioned and workshopped an adaptation by David Gordon called Some Kind of Wind in the Willows, with music by Gina Leishman .[2]

[edit ] Film and television

* A 1949 animated adaptation by Walt Disney , half of The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad
* A 1983 animated film version with stop-motion puppets by Cosgrove Hall .
* The film was followed by an ongoing television series, The Wind in the Willows (1984-1990) done in the same style - possibly the most faithful adaptation. There were a host of famous names in the cast, including Sir David Jason , Sir Michael Hordern , Peter Sallis and Ian Carmichael .
* A 1985 animated musical film version for television, produced by Rankin/Bass productions. This version was very faithful to the book and featured a number of original songs, including the title, "Wind in the Willows," performed by folk singer Judy Collins . Voice actors included Roddy McDowell as Ratty and Charles Nelson Reilly as Toad.
* A 1996 animated version with a cast led by Michael Palin and Alan Bennett as Ratty and Mole and Rik Mayall as Toad; followed by an adaptation of The Willows in Winter produced by the now defunct TVC (Television Cartoons) in London.
* A 1996 live-action version of The Wind in the Willows , written and directed by Terry Jones , also known in the U.S. as Mr. Toad's Wild Ride.
* A 2006 live-action television adaptation with Lee Ingleby as Mole, Mark Gatiss as Ratty, Matt Lucas as Toad, Bob Hoskins as Badger, and also featuring Imelda Staunton , Anna Maxwell Martin and Mary Walsh . This version debuted in Canada on CBC Television on December 18 , 2006 , in the United Kingdom on BBC1 on January 1 , 2007 , in the U.S. on PBS's Masterpiece Theatre on April 8 , 2007 and in Australia on ABC TV on 23 December 2007 .[3]

[edit ] Radio

Kenneth Williams also did a version of the book for radio.

[edit ] Sequels

William Horwood created several sequels to The Wind in the Willows: The Willows in Winter, Toad Triumphant, The Willows and Beyond, and The Willows at Christmas.

Jan Needle's Wild Wood was published in 1981 with illustrations by William Rushton (ISBN 0-233-97346-X ). It is a re-telling of the story of The Wind in the Willows from the point of view of the working-class inhabitants of the Wild Wood. For them, money is short and employment hard to find. They have a very different perspective on the wealthy, easy, careless lifestyle of Toad and his friends. Some of the smallest incidents in the original story are given a new significance in this one - the narrator of Wild Wood loses his much-needed job as Toad's chauffeur when Badger, Mole and Rat decide to stop Toad's driving. The climax of the book comes when Toad goes to prison: the stoats and weasels take over Toad Hall and turn it into a socialist collective called Brotherhood Hall. This re-writing could be seen as a commentary on the dramatic changes to British society with the coming to power of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1979.[citation needed ]


Sources

* The Wind in the Willows , available from Internet Archive , illustrated by Paul Bransom (1913)
* The Wind in the Willows , available at Project Gutenberg .
* Librivox audio recordings can be found here , here and here

Other

* The Wind in the Willows at the River and Rowing Museum , Henley-on-Thames
* Bodleian Library, Oxford, online display of original manuscript, books and drawings

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wind_in_the_Willows "
Categories : 1908 novels | British novels | Children's novels | Books about friendship | British children's literature | River Thames | Literature featuring anthropomorphic characters | Fictional badgers


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