英語海外美術館探索Touring Overseas Art Museums Through English

英語で海外の美術館のサイトを訪問します

スポンサーサイト

上記の広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。
新しい記事を書く事で広告が消せます。

別窓 | スポンサー広告
∧top | under∨

Tosa school

Tosa school
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bamboo in the Four Seasons, Muromachi period (1392–1573) Attributed to Tosa Mitsunobu (1434–1535)

Pair of six-panel folding screens; color, ink, and gold on paper; 174.3 × 381.6 cm

The Tosa school of Japanese painting was founded in the 15th century, and was devoted to the Yamato-e, which are paintings specializing in subject matter and techniques derived from ancient Japanese art, as opposed to schools influenced by Chinese art.

The origins of this school of painting can be traced to Tosa Yukihiro (土佐 行弘), who first used the professional name of Tosa in the early fifteenth century. Later, the school was formally founded by Mitsunobu (1434?–?1525), and he served as official painter at the imperial court, specializing in courtly subjects painted in the yamato-e (やまと絵) style.

During this time, members of the Tosa school almost continuously held the position of head of the Imperial painting bureau (絵所預 edokoroazukari). Until the 17th century, the Tosa school painted for the court and aristocratic patrons, which favored such painting subjects as scenes from the classic Tale of Genji (源氏絵), but in later years, the school's range expanded to include bird-and-flower painting and other Chinese-inspired themes and styles. In general, the Tosa style is characterized by rather flat, decorative compositions, fine linework, great attention to detail, and brilliant color.

[edit] History
Ilustration of the Genji Monogatari

ch.42 – 匂宮 Niō no Miya ("The Perfumed Prince")

Credited to Tosa Mitsuoki (1617–1691).

The earliest documentary evidence for an artist using the name Tosa are two early 15th century references to a man named Fujiwara Yukihiro (藤原 行広) (fl. 1406 – 1434) who was also known as Tosa Shōgen (土佐 将監), a title derived from his position as governor of Tosa province. Yukihiro's activity as a painter is known primarily from an inscription on illustrated handscrolls of the Stories of the Origin of Yūzū Nembutsu (融通念仏縁起); 1414, Seiryōji (清涼寺), Kyoto.

Yukihiro's father, Fujiwara Yukimitsu (藤原 行光) (fl. 1352 – 1389) was appointed head of the Imperial painting bureau in 1352, and Yukihiro appears also to have held that post. However, the line of succession from Yukimitsu (considered by some to be the founder of the school) to Tosa Mitsunobu (土佐 光信) (1434 – 1525), who brought the school to a position of prominence in the late 15th century, is still unclear.

Many fine works remain from Mitsunobu's hand. Although he painted both Buddhist paintings and portraits in addition to the standard repertoire of courtly themes, he is best known for his illustrated handscrolls, emaki (絵巻), such as The Legends of Kiyomizudera (清水寺縁起). During Mitsunobu's lifetime, the Tosa school may have had some influence on the early development of the Kanō school (狩野派) of painting, in particular, on the use of brilliant colors and gold in combination with the Chinese inspired brushwork, and for various themes for which the Kanō school is known.

Mitsunobu was succeeded by his son, Mitsumochi (光茂) (1496 – ca.1559), under whom the fortunes of the school began to decline. When Mitsumoto (光元) (fl.1530 – 1569), the next head of the painting bureau, was killed in battle in 1569, his post was given to a second son or perhaps a student of Mitsumochi, Tosa Mitsuyoshi (土佐 光吉) (1539 – 1613). Mitsuyoshi eventually left the capital and his post and settled in the city of Sakai (堺), a port city near Osaka, where he sold paintings to the local townspeople. Mitsumochi also moved away from the traditional Tosa themes to specialize in bird-and-flower paintings. During this period, the stewardship of the imperial painting bureau passed from the Tosa school into the hands of Kanō school (狩野派) painters.

Mitsuyoshi's son, Mitsunori (光則) (1583 – 1638) continued to live and work in Sakai, painting for townsmen, until 1634, when he moved to the capital with his eldest son, Mitsuoki (光起) (1617 – 1691) and began painting ceremonial fans for the court. Twenty years later, in 1654, Mitsuoki was appointed head of the imperial painting bureau, thus restoring the fortunes of the Tosa family. Mitsuoki also rejuvenated the traditional Tosa style by introducing elements from Chinese painting. He is particularly noted for his elegant paintings of quail, as for example, the Chrysanthemum and Quail screens which he painted with the help of his son Mitsunari (光成) (1646 – 1710).

Mitsuoki's successors headed the Imperial painting bureau until the end of the Edo period, but their reliance on imitating the style of Mitsuoki, rather than developing new techniques or themes, led to the production of works that were increasingly static and conventional.

[edit] Tosa artists of note

* Tosa Yukihiro
* Tosa Mitsunobu
* Tosa Mitsuoki
* Tosa Mitsumochi
* Tosa Mitsumoto
* Tosa Mitsuyoshi
* Tosa Mitsunori
* Iwasa Matabei

[edit] References

* Burke, Richard. Murasaki Shikibu: Her Diary and Poetic Memoirs. Princeton University Press, 1982.
* Murase, Miyeko. Iconography of The Tale of Genji. Genji Monogatari Ekotoba. New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1983.
* The Tale of Genji: Legends and Paintings. Introduction by Miyeko Murase. New York: George Braziller, Inc., 2001 ISBN 0-7141-1496-0

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tosa_school"
Categories: 15th century establishments | Schools of Japanese art

土佐派
出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
移動: ナビゲーション, 検索

土佐派(とさは)
目次
[非表示]

* 1 流派解説
* 2 流派の由来
* 3 特筆すべき分系統
* 4 派生流派

[編集] 流派解説

* 巨勢派の巨勢公望の門人春日基光を流祖とし、数々の名手を世に送り出した流派。
* 本画派は、純日本的ないわゆる大和絵の伝法を樹立し、平安時代よりおよそ一千年の長きにわたって朝廷の絵所を世襲し、伝統と権勢を誇った流派である。

[編集] 流派の由来

* 源氏物語絵巻の筆者として名高い春日隆能の孫、春日経隆が、奈良を去って、京都に移り朝廷に仕えて、土佐権守に任じられたことに由来する。
* 春日経隆が、奈良を去るまでは、春日派と呼ばれることもあるが、経隆の後は、みな土佐を氏とした。

[編集] 特筆すべき分系統

* 隆信系 ※一名、法性寺系。藤原隆信を祖とする。著名な名手に、鳥羽僧正がいる。

など

[編集] 派生流派

* 住吉派

など

【春日派・土佐派歴代】

* 春日基光 当流初代
* 春日隆能 当流二代
* 土佐隆親 当流三代※春日隆親から土佐を名乗るようになる。
* 土佐光長 当流四代
* 土佐経隆
* 土佐長隆
* 土佐吉光
* 土佐行光 土佐派初代。
* 土佐光信 当流十三代※当流中興の祖とされる。
* 土佐光茂
* 土佐光起 当流十八代※当流中興の祖とされる。

【土佐派歴代】

* 土佐行光 土佐派?代。延文六年(1361)宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐光重 土佐派?代。行光の長子。明徳元年(1390)宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐光国 土佐派?代。宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐行秀 土佐派8世。行光の次子。応永二十年(1413)宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐広周 土佐派9世。行秀の次子。永享十一年(1439)宮中絵所預となる。後に室町幕府に渡り絵師職として活躍する。彼の子で後継者の行定は延徳二年(1491)を最後にその消息は途絶え、広周の幕府関係の料所は11世光信に継承された。
* 土佐光弘 土佐派10世。行秀の長子。嘉吉三年(1443)宮中絵所預となる。
* 土佐光信 土佐派11世。広周の兄光弘の次子。文明元年(1469)宮中絵所預となる。延徳三年(1491)ごろに幕府絵師職を継承し土佐派の家系を統一、土佐派を確立させた。
* 土佐光茂 土佐派12世。光信の子。
* 土佐光元 土佐派13世。光茂の長子。
* 土佐光吉 土佐派14世。光茂の次子。
* 土佐光則 土佐派15世。光吉の子。
* 土佐光起 土佐派16世。土佐派中興の祖。
* 土佐光成 土佐派17世。光起の長子。
* 土佐光祐 土佐派18世。
* 土佐光芳 土佐派19世。光祐の子。
* 土佐光淳 土佐派20世。
* 土佐光時 土佐派21世。光淳の子。
* 土佐光禄 土佐派22世。
* 土佐光文 土佐派23世。光芳の子光貞の光孚の次男。宗家を継ぐ。
* 土佐光章 土佐派24世。光文の子。28歳で早世。
* 土佐光一 土佐派25世。

【別家】

* 土佐光貞 別家初代。本家十九代土佐光芳の次子。別家を創設する。
* 土佐光孚 別家二代。光貞の子。

"http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%9C%9F%E4%BD%90%E6%B4%BE" より作成
カテゴリ: 日本美術史 | 日本の画家
スポンサーサイト
別窓 | Japanese painting | コメント:0 | トラックバック:0
∧top | under∨

japanese painting wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_painting
別窓 | Japanese painting | コメント:0 | トラックバック:0
∧top | under∨

Japanese painting

http://query.nytimes.com/search/query?d=nytdsection%2b&o=e%2b&v=Arts%2b&c=a%2b&query=japanese+painting&date_select=full

Japanese Fine Arts.com by Shukado
http://www.japanese-finearts.com/
別窓 | Japanese painting | コメント:0 | トラックバック:0
∧top | under∨

Japanese painting

Japanese painting
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Japanese painting (絵画, Kaiga?) is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts, encompassing a wide variety of genre and styles. As with the history of Japanese arts in general, the history Japanese painting is a long history of synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas.
Ancient Japan

The origins of painting in Japan date well back into Japan's prehistoric period. Simple stick figures and geometric designs can be found on Jōmon period pottery and Yayoi period (300 BC – 300 AD) dotaku bronze bells. Mural paintings with both geometric and figurative designs have been found in numerous tumulus from the Kofun period (300-700 AD).

With the introduction of the Chinese writing system (kanji), Chinese modes of governmental administration and with the introduction of Buddhism in the Asuka period, many art works were imported into Japan from China via the Korean peninsula and local copies in similar styles began to be produced.

[edit] Nara period
Mural painting from the Takamatsuzuka Tomb
Mural painting from the Takamatsuzuka Tomb

With the spread of Buddhism in 6th and 7th century Japan, painting of religious imagery flourished to decorate the numerous temples erected by the ruling classes. However, Nara period Japan was more especially way more strongly characterized by the art of sculpture, rather than painting.

The earliest surviving paintings from this period include the murals on the walls of the temple of Horyu-ji in Ikaruga, Nara, illustrating episodes from the life of Buddha, the Bodhisattvas, and various minor deities. The style is reminiscent of Chinese paintings from the Sui dynasty or the late Sixteen Kingdoms period. However, by the mid-Nara period, paintings in the style of the Tang dynasty became very popular. These also include the wall murals in the Takamatsuzuka Tomb, dating from around 700 AD. This style evolved into the (Kara-e) genre, which remained popular through the early Heian period.

As most of the paintings in the Nara periods are religious in nature, the vast majority are by anonymous artists. A large collection of Nara period art is preserved at the Shosoin storehouse, formerly owned by Todai-ji, and now under the control of the Imperial Household Agency.

[edit] Heian and Kamakura periods

With the development of the esoteric Buddhist sects of Shingon and Tendai in 8th and 9th century Japan, religious imagery, most notably painted Mandala, became predominant. Numerous versions of Mandala, especially the Diamond Realm Mandala and the Womb Realm Mandala, were created as hanging scrolls, and also as murals on the walls of temples. A noted early example is at the five-story pagoda of Daigo-ji, a temple south of Kyoto.

With the continuing evolution of Japanese Buddhism towards the Pure Land forms of the Jodo sect in the 10th century, and important new genre was added: the raigozu, which depicts the Buddha Amida arriving to welcome the souls of the faithful to his Western Paradise. A noted early example dating from 1053 exists at the Byodo-in, temple in Uji, Kyoto. This is also considered one early example of Yamato-e Japanese-style painting, which contains representations of the scenery around Kyoto.
Panel from the Tale of Genji handscroll (detail)
Panel from the Tale of Genji handscroll (detail)
Night Attack on Sanjo Palace
Night Attack on Sanjo Palace

By the mid-Heian period, the (kara-e) Chinese style of painting had lost ground to Yamato-e which were initially used primarily for sliding screens and byōbu folding screens. However, Yamato-e also developed into new formats, (especially towards the end of the Heian period) including the emakimono hand scroll. Emakimono encompassed illustrated novels, such as the Genji Monogatari , historical works, such as the Ban Dainagon Ekotoba , and religious works. E-maki artists devised systems of pictorial conventions that convey visually the emotional content of each scene. ここまで)The Genji Monogtari is organized into discreet episodes, whereas the more lively Ban Dainagon Ekotoba uses a continuous narrative illustration which emphasizes figures in active motion depicted in rapidly executed brush strokes and thin but vibrant colors. The Siege of the Sanjō Palace is another famous example of this style.

E-maki also serve as some of the earliest and greatest examples of the otoko-e (Men's pictures) and onna-e (Women's pictures) styles of painting. There are many fine differences in the two styles, appealing to the aesthetic preferences of the genders. But perhaps most easily noticeable are the differences in subject matter. Onna-e, epitomized by the Tale of Genji handscroll, typically deals with court life, particularly the court ladies, and with romantic themes. Otoko-e, on the other hand, often recorded historical events, particularly battles.

These genres continued on through Kamakura period Japan from 1180-1333. E-maki of various kinds continued to be produced; however, the Kamakura period was much more strongly characterized by the art of sculpture, rather than painting.

As most of the paintings in the Heian and Kamakura periods are religious in nature, the vast majority are by anonymous artists.

[edit] Muromachi period
Pine Trees by Hasegawa Tohaku
Pine Trees by Hasegawa Tohaku
Landscape by Sesshu Toyo
Landscape by Sesshu Toyo

During the 14th century, the development of the great Zen monasteries in Kamakura and Kyoto had a major impact on the visual arts. Suibokuga, an austere monochrome style of ink painting introduced from Sung and Yuan dynasty China largely replaced the polychrome scroll paintings of the previous period, although some polychrome portraiture remained – primary in the form of chinso paintings of Zen monks.Typical of such painting is the depiction by the priest-painter Kao of the legendary monk Kensu (Hsien-tzu in Chinese) at the moment he achieved enlightenment. This type of painting was executed with quick brush strokes and a minimum of detail.

'Catching a Catfish with a Gourd' (located at Taizo-in, Myoshin-ji, Kyoto), by the priest-painter Josetsu, marks a turning point in Muromachi painting. In the foreground a man is depicted on the bank of a stream holding a small gourd and looking at a large slithery catfish. Mist fills the middle ground, and the background, mountains appear to be far in the distance. It is generally assumed that the "new style" of the painting, executed about 1413, refers to a more Chinese sense of deep space within the picture plane

By the end of the 14th century, monochrome landscape paintings (sansuiga) had found patronage by the ruling Ashikaga family and was the preferred genre among Zen painters, gradually evolving from its Chinese roots to a more Japanese style.

The foremost artists of the Muromachi period are the priest-painters Shubun and Sesshu. Shubun, a monk at the Kyoto temple of Shokoku-ji, created in the painting 'Reading in a Bamboo Grove' a realistic landscape with deep recession into space. Sesshu, unlike most artists of the period, was able to journey to China and study Chinese painting at its source. 'The Long Handscroll' is one of Sesshu's most accomplished works, depicting a continuing landscape through the four seasons.

In the late Muromachi period, ink painting had migrated out of the Zen monasteries into the art world in general, as artists from the Kano school and the Ami school adopted the style and themes, but introducing a more plastic and decorative effect that would continue into modern times.

Important artists in the Muromachi period Japan include:

* Mokkei (circa 1250)
* Mokuan Reien (d.1345)
* Kao Ninga (e.14th century)
* Mincho (1352-1431)
* Josetsu (1405-1423)
* Tensho Shubun(d.1460)
* Sesshu Toyo (1420-1506)
* Kano Masanobu (1434-1530)
* Kano Motonobu (1476-1559)

[edit] Azuchi-Momoyama period
Screen detail depicting arrival of a Western ship, attributed to Kanō Naizen (1570–1616).
Screen detail depicting arrival of a Western ship, attributed to Kanō Naizen (1570–1616).


In sharp contrast to the previous Muromachi period, the Azuchi Momoyama period was characterized by a grandiose polychrome style, with extensive use of gold and silver foil, and by works on a very large scale. The Kano school, patronized by Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, and their followers and gained tremendously in size and prestige. Kano Eitoku developed a formula for the creation of monumental landscapes on the sliding doors enclosing a room. These huge screens and wall paintings were commissioned to decorate the castles and palaces of the military nobility. This status continued into the subsequent Edo period, as the Tokugawa bakufu continued to promote the works of the Kano school as the officially sanctioned art for the Shogun, daimyo, and Imperial court.

However, non-Kano school artists and currents existed and developed during the Azuchi-Momoyama period as well, adapting Chinese themes to Japanese materials and aesthetics. One important group was the Tosa school, which developed primarily out of the yamato-e tradition, and which was known mostly for small scale works and illustrations of literary classics in book or emaki format.

Important artists in the Azuchi-Momoyama period include:

* Kano Eitoku (1543-1590)
* Kano Sanraku (1559-1663)
* Kano Tanyu (1602-1674)
* Hasegawa Tohaku (1539-1610)
* Kaiho Yusho (1533-1615)

[edit] Edo period
Scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma "Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha", by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768)
Scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma "Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha", by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768)
Wind God by Ogata Korin
Wind God by Ogata Korin

Many art historians show the Edo period as a continuation of the Azuchi-Momoyama period. Certainly, during the early Edo period, many of the previous trends in painting continued to be popular; however, a number of new trends also emerged.

One very significant school which arose in the early Edo period was the Rimpa school, which used classical themes, but presented them in a bold, and lavishly decorative format. Sōtatsu in particular evolved a decorative style by re-creating themes from classical literature, using brilliantly colored figures and motifs from the natural world set against gold-leaf backgrounds. A century later, Korin reworked Sōtatsu's style and created visually gorgeous works uniquely his own.

Another important genre which began during Azuchi-Momoyama period, but which reached its full development during the early Edo period was Namban art, both in the depiction of exotic foreigners and in the use of the exotic foreigner style in painting. This genre was centered around the port of Nagasaki, which after the start of the national seclusion policy of the Tokugawa bakufu was the only Japanese port left open to foreign trade, and was thus the conduit by which Chinese and European artistic influences came to Japan. Paintings in this genre include Nagasaki school paintings, and also the Maruyama-Shijo school, which combine Chinese and Western influences with traditional Japanese elements.

A third important trend in the Edo period was the rise of the Bunjinga (literati painting) genre, also known as the Nanga school (Southern Painting school). This genre started as an imitation of the works of Chinese scholar-amateur painters of the Yuan dynasty, whose works and techniques came to Japan in the mid 18th century. Later bunjinga artists considerably modified both the techniques and the subject matter of this genre to create a blending of Japanese and Chinese styles. The exemplars of this style are Ike no Taiga, Yosa Buson, Tanomura Chikuden, and Yamamoto Baiitsu.

Due to the Tokugawa bakufu's policies of fiscal and social austerity, the luxurious modes of these genre and styles were largely limited to the upper strata of society, and were unavailable, if not actually forbidden to the lower classes. The common people developed a separate type of art, the fuzokuga, in which painting depicting scenes from common, everyday life, especially that of the common people, kabuki theatre, prostitutes and landscapes were popular. These paintings in the 16th century gave rise to the semi-mass produced woodcut print, or ukiyoe, which was one of the defining media of the mid to late Edo period.

Important artists in the Edo period include:

* Tawaraya Sōtatsu (d.1643)
* Ogata Korin (1658-1716)
* Maruyama Okyo (1733-1795)
* Matsumura Goshun (1752-1811)
* Ito Jakuchu (1716-1800)
* Gion Nankai (1677-1751)
* Sakaki Hyakusen (1697-1752)
* Yanagisawa Kien (1704-1758)
* Ike no Taiga ((1723-1776)
* Yosa Buson (1716-1783)
* Uragami Gyokudo (1745-1820)
* Okada Beisanjin (1744-1820)
* Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849)
* Tanomura Chikuden (1777-1835)
* Yamamoto Baiitsu (1783-1856)
* Tomioka Tessai (1836-1924)

[edit] Meiji period
Kuroda Seiki, Lakeside, 1897, oil on canvas, Kuroda Memorial Hall, Tokyo
Kuroda Seiki, Lakeside, 1897, oil on canvas, Kuroda Memorial Hall, Tokyo

During the Meiji period, Japan underwent a tremendous political and social change in the course of the westernization and modernization campaign organized by the new Meiji government. The Meiji period was marked by the division of art into competing western styles and traditional indigenous styles.

Western style painting (Yōga) was officially promoted by the government, who sent promising young artists abroad for studies, and who hired foreign artists to come to Japan to establish an art curriculum at Japanese schools.

However, after an initial burst for western style art, the pendulum swung in the opposite direction, and led by art critic Okakura Kakuzo and educator Ernest Fenollosa, there was a revival of appreciation for traditional Japanese styles (Nihonga). In the 1880, western style art was banned from official exhibitions and was severely criticized by critics. Supported by Okakura and Fenollosa, the Nihonga style evolved with influences from the European pre-Raphaelite movement and European romanticism.

The Yōga style painters formed the Meiji Bijutsukai (Meiji Fine Arts Society) to hold its own exhibitions and to promote a renewed interest in western art.
Yoritomo in a Cave by Maeda Seison
Yoritomo in a Cave by Maeda Seison

In 1907, with the establishment of the Bunten under the aegis of the Ministry of Education, both competing groups found mutual recognition and co-existence, and even began the process towards mutual synthesis.

Important artists in the Meiji period include:

* Harada Naojiro (1863-1899)
* Yamamoto Hosui (1850-1906)
* Asai Chu (1856-1907)
* Kano Hogai (1828-1888)
* Hashimoto Gaho (1835-1908)
* Kuroda Seiki (1866-1924)
* Wada Eisaku (1874-1959)
* Okada Saburosuke (1869-1939)
* Sakamoto Hanjiro (1882-1962)
* Aoki Shigeru (1882-1911)
* Fujishima Takeji (1867-1943)

* Hishida Shunso 1874-1911
* Kawai Gyokudo 1873-1957
* Maeda Seison 1885-1977
* Shimomura Kanzan 1873-1930
* Takeuchi Seiho 1864-1942
* Tomioka Tessai 1837-1924
* Uemura Shoen 1875-1949
* Yokoyama Taikan 1868-1958

[edit] Taisho period
Landscape by Kishida Ryusei
Landscape by Kishida Ryusei

The Taisho period saw the predominance of Yōga over Nihonga. After long stays in Europe, many artists (including Arishima Ikuma) returned to Japan during the Taisho period, bringing with them the techniques of impressionism and early post-impressionism. The works of Camille Pissarro, Paul Cezanne and Pierre Auguste Renoir influenced early Taisho period paintings. However, yōga artists in the Taisho period also tended towards eclecticism, and there was a profusion of dissident artistic movements. These included the Fusain Society (Fyuzankai) which emphasized styles of post-impressionism, especially fauvism. In 1914, the Nikakai (Second Division Society) emerged to oppose the government-sponsored Bunten Exihibition.

Japanese painting during the Taisho period was only mildly influenced by other contemporary European movements, such as neoclassicism and late post-impressionism.

However, interestingly it was resurgent Nihonga, towards the end of the Taisho period, which adopted certain trends from post-impressionism. The second generation of Nihonga artists formed the Japan Fine Arts Academy (Nihon Bijutsuin) to compete against the government-sponsored Bunten, and although yamato-e traditions remained strong, the increasing use of western perspective, and western concepts of space and light began to blur the distinction between Nihonga and yōga.

Important artists in the Taisho period include:

* Kishida Ryusei (1891-1929)
* Yorozu Tetsugoro (1885-1927)
* Yokoyama Taikan (1868-1958)
* Shimomura Kanzan (1873-1930)
* Hishida Shunso (1874-1911)
* Maeda Seison (1885-1977)
* Imamura Shiro (1880-1916)
* Tomita Keisen (1879-1936)
* Hayami Gyoshu (1894-1935)
* Kawabata Ryushi (1885-1966)
* Tsuchida Hakusen (1887-1936)
* Murakami Kagaku (1888-1939)
* Itō Shinsui 伊東深水 1898-1972
* Kaburaki Kiyokata 鏑木清方 1878-1972
* Takehisa Yumeji 竹久夢二 1884-1934
* Uemura Shoko 上村松篁 1902-2001

[edit] Showa period

Japanese painting in the early Showa period was largely dominated by Yasui Sotaro and Umehara Ryuzaburo, who introduced the concepts of pure art and abstract painting to the Nihonga tradition, and thus created a more interpretative version of that genre. This trend was further developed by Leonard Foujita and the Nika Society, to encompass surrealism. To promote these trends, the Independent Art Association (Dokuritsu Bijutsu Kyokai) was formed in 1931.

During the World War II period, government controls and censorship meant that only patriotic themes could be expressed. Many artists were recruited into the government propaganda effort, and critical non-emotional review of their works is only just beginning.

In the post-war period, the government-sponsored Japan Art Academy (Nihon Geijutsuin) was formed in 1947, containing both nihonga and yōga divisions. Government sponsorship of art exhibitions has ended, but has been replaced by private exhibitions, such as the Nitten, on an even larger scale. Although the Nitten was initially the exhibition of the Japan Art Academy, since 1958 it has been run by a separate private corporation. Participation in the Nitten has become almost a prerequisite for nomination to the Japan Art Academy, which in itself is almost an unofficial prerequisite for nomination to the Order of Culture.

Important artists in the Showa period include:

* Yasui Sotaro (1881-1955)
* Umehara Ryuzaburo (1888-1986)
* Leonard Foujita (1886-1968)
* Yasuda Yukihiko (1884-1978)
* Kobayashi Kokei (1883-1957)
* Kaii Higashiyama 1908-1999
* Ogura Yuki 1895-2000

[edit] Contemporary

After World War II, painters, calligraphers, and printmakers flourished in the big cities, particularly Tokyo, and became preoccupied with the mechanisms of urban life, reflected in the flickering lights, neon colors, and frenetic pace of their abstractions. All the "isms" of the New York-Paris art world were fervently embraced. After the abstractions of the 1960s, the 1970s saw a return to realism strongly flavored by the "op" and "pop" art movements, embodied in the 1980s in the explosive works of Shinohara Ushio. Many such outstanding avant-garde artists worked both in Japan and abroad, winning international prizes. These artists felt that there was "nothing Japanese" about their works, and indeed they belonged to the international school. By the late 1970s, the search for Japanese qualities and a national style caused many artists to reevaluate their artistic ideology and turn away from what some felt were the empty formulas of the West. Contemporary paintings within the modern idiom began to make conscious use of traditional Japanese art forms, devices, and ideologies. A number of mono-ha artists turned to painting to recapture traditional nuances in spatial arrangements, color harmonies, and lyricism.

Japanese-style painting (nihonga) continues in a modern fashion, updating traditional expressions while retaining their intrinsic character. Some artists within this style still paint on silk or paper with traditional colors and ink, while others used new materials, such as acrylics. Many of the older schools of art, most notably those of the Tokugawa period, were still practiced. For example, the decorative naturalism of the rimpa school, characterized by brilliant, pure colors and bleeding washes, was reflected in the work of many postwar artists and in the 1980s art of Hikosaka Naoyoshi. The realism of Maruyama Ōkyo's school and the calligraphic and spontaneous Japanese style of the gentlemen-scholars were both widely practiced in the 1980s. Sometimes all of these schools, as well as older ones, such as the Kano school ink traditions, were drawn on by contemporary artists in the Japanese style and in the modern idiom. Many Japanese-style painters were honored with awards and prizes as a result of renewed popular demand for Japanese-style art beginning in the 1970s. More and more, the international modern painters also drew on the Japanese schools as they turned away from Western styles in the 1980s. The tendency had been to synthesize East and West. Some artists had already leapt the gap between the two, as did the outstanding painter Shinoda Toko. Her bold sumi ink abstractions were inspired by traditional calligraphy but realized as lyrical expressions of modern abstraction.

There are also a number of contemporary painters in Japan whose work is largely inspired by anime sub-cultures and other aspects of popular and youth culture. Takashi Murakami is perhaps among the most famous and popular of these, along with and the other artists in his Kaikai Kiki studio collective. His work centers on expressing issues and concerns of postwar Japanese society through what are usually seemingly innocuous forms. He draws heavily from anime and related styles, but produces paintings and sculptures in media more traditionally associated with fine arts, intentionally blurring the lines between commercial and popular art and fine arts.

[edit] References

* Keene, Donald. Dawn to the West. Columbia University Press; (1998). ISBN 0231114354
* Mason, Penelope. History of Japanese Art . Prentice Hall (2005). ISBN 0131176021
* Sadao, Tsuneko. Discovering the Arts of Japan: A Historical Overview. Kodansha International (2003). ISBN 477002939X
* Schaarschmidt Richte. Japanese Modern Art Painting From 1910 . Edition Stemmle. ISBN 3908161851

Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_painting

Categories: Japanese painting | Japanese art
別窓 | Japanese painting | コメント:0 | トラックバック:0
∧top | under∨
| 英語海外美術館探索Touring Overseas Art Museums Through English |
上記広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。新しい記事を書くことで広告を消せます。